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Puraanic expression of chhandas : It seems that the first 6 chapters of Bhaagavata puraana are connected with the first 6 days of a 12 – day yaaga. The first 6 yaaga days have been attributed to Gaayatri, Trishtup, Jagati, Viraat, Pankti and Atichhanda. After that start 3 days which are related respectively with Gaayatri, Trishtup and Jagati. The first chapter of Bhaagavata puraana is concerned with beating of Dharma having the form of an ox by Kali, no – reply by seer Shrangi to king Parikshit, putting of a serpent by Parikshit on the neck of the seer, getting the curse of being bitten by serpent and dialogue between Shuka and Parikshita. In all these stories, who is Parikshita ? One vedic mantra says that the earlier and later pitris/manes are the parikshitah, those who are scattered around. It is our senses which are scattered. Then who can be Shuka? What has been called Aja/goat in braahmanic literature, may be the Shuka in puraanas. Seer Shringi is the highest state of human consciousness. When one is unable to receive response from this stage, then the best way is to become introvert.  Shuka state has to be attained for success in Gaayatri. In ordinary sense, Shuka means a parrot. But in spirituality, it may means a stage where all noise has vanished. Thus while vedic literature talks of hearing primordial sound before dawn, puraanic literature has transformed it in the most beautiful way like this.

The second chapter of this puraana is connected with the wide form of Vishnu and the description of manifestation. This chapter can be said to be related with trishtup. Trishtup is concerned with efficiency, how efficiently a work can be performed. For this purpose, it is essential that our senses may not be confined to ourselves, they should look beyond that. As mentioned above in connection with the story of king Nala, he knows the art of tending of horses, not the art of gambling. Both these arts are connected with trishtup chhanda. The description above dealt with the art of gambling, but not the art of horse tending. This has been clarified in this chapter of Bhaagavata puraana through the concept of broad form of Vishnu.

The third chapter of Bhaagavata puraana contains story of killing of a demon Hiranyaaksha (who had stole the earth) by lord Vishnu having the form of a sacrificial boar and bringing the earth up on the water. The other story is the marriage of seer Kardama with Devahooti, begetting of son Kapila by Devahooti and liberation of Devahooti and Kardama by the sermons of son Kapila. This chapter can be said to be an explanation of Jagati chhanda. It is interesting to note that in case of trishtup chhanda, it was desirable to rise above the nature of gambling and reach a state of definiteness. Here in case of Jagati chhanda, the demon who is well versed in the art of gambling/aksha, has stole the earth. This statement may mean that in nature, this state has become predominant. This state of affair was rectified by the manifestation of Vishnu in the form of a sacrificial boar. Puraanic texts explain what this boar can be. Every part of this boar has been identified with some implement of a sacrifice ritual. Then only the state of gambling can be finished from the earth, from the nature.  In vedic literature, this seems to have been codified in the form of ear – to gradually attain the Shruti instead of Smriti. Kardama in Sanskrit means mud. This mud may be the same as has been called noise in the description above. Devahooti may mean one who can have a deep craving for the divine. Thus, this chapter is unique in the sense that it talks of elimination of noise through a marriage of noise and divine craving. In vedic literature, the divine craving has been compared with the craving of a frog for rain.

The fourth chapter of Bhaagavata puraana contains the stories of the yaaga of Daksha, the penances of Dhruva, the anecdote of Puranjana,  the birth of king Prithu from Vena and the leveling of earth by Prithu and milking of this earth having the form of a cow by all the creatures. This chapter may be related either with Anushtup chhanda. The purpose of putting the story of Daksha in the beginning of this chapter is not clear. Daksha or efficiency should go to either trishtup or jagati chhanda. This direction is opposite to south. South is connected with efficiency and a state of gambling. On the other hand, north direction is connected with definiteness. The first requirement of Anushtup chhanda is the formation of a Dhruva/firm state in which the signals generated in the highest state of consciousness may safely be transmitted to the lowest state. Thus, the Dhruva/firm state may mean a state of lower entropy. Regarding the story of Puranjana, pura means abode. When one is situated in a pura, nobody can harm him. In a somayaaga, anushtup chhanda may be connected with north direction which is the place of a fire which has got the trait that it can be either introvert or extrovert. It is situated at the boundary. Then regarding the story of Prithu, this is a state where the individual consciousness has merged into collective consciousness. As has been mentioned in case of Dwesha, the leveling of earth means that the individual consciousness have merged into collectiveness. The vedic origin of this trait is yet to be investigated. 

The proper explanation of other chapters of Bhaagavata puraana is yet to be investigated. The ninth chapter contains the stories of different warrior – seers which also includes that of penances of Bhageerata for descending of Ganges on the earth so that the bone remains of his forfathers may get pious. This chapter is connected with Jagati chhanda and therefore these stories become important to properly understand this chhanda. Jagati has been called as bone in vedic literature. In Sanskrit, the word asthi/bone may mean a state of pure consciousness, the state of least entropy. As has been described above, the function of jagati chhanda is to rectify the state of higher entropy. In puraanic literature, goddess Lakshmi has been stated to be very flickering, having higher entropy.


The verses of Rigveda are composed in various chhandas. In Saamaveda, the saama to be sung is generally composed of 3 verses of Rigveda and while singing a saama, various lines of these verses are repeated again and again in a definite order. This order is dictated by the stoma in which the saama has to be sung. These stomas have names such as trivrit(9), panchadasha(15), saptadasha(17), ekvimsha(21), trinava(27), trayastrimsha(33) etc. It is mystery what is really the purpose behind these orders. One text says that saamas are divine, chhandas are progeny. At another place, it has been said that with saama, one achieves a military array, while with chhanda one forms a group, an assembly, a crowd. This reminds one of the Bose – Einstein and Fermi – Dirac statistics in modern particle physics. Some particles, especially having electrical charge, behave in Fermi – Dirac statistical way, while other particles in Bose – Einstein statistical way. For those group of particles which behave in Fermi – Dirac statistical way, no two particles can be placed at the same energy level. In other words, each particle has it’s own particular energy. This type of behaviour arises due to the presence of spin momentum on the particle. On the other hand, for those group of particles which obey Bose – Einstein statistics, as many number of particles can be adjusted at the same energy level in a group. Contradictions also appear in braahmanic literature which requires proper explanation in future.

           Can chhanda can be compared to formation of bands in modern theory of solids? When atoms come together, the charge sphere around them interacts with each other and creates attractive and repulsive forces. This leads to formation of bands and band gaps. The property of a band is that it allows free motion of charge in it. The motion of charge is forbidden in band gap.  The formation of chhanda in the realm of consciousness can not be compared with formation of bands and band gaps because the particles forming bands and band gaps obey different types of statistical rules called Fermi - Dirac statistics. On the other hand, it seems that formation of chhanda is limited to Bose - Einsteen statistics only. Edit Text